آیا افزودن گلوتن و نشاسته به آردهای ضعیف می‌تواند سستی آن را رفع سازد؟

تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/09

آیا افزودن گلوتن و نشاسته به آردهای ضعیف می‌تواند سستی آن را رفع سازد؟

هدف اصلی پخت نان، به دست آوردن محصولی از آرد با ظاهری جذاب، حجم مناسب و قابلیت هضم زیاد است و به علاوه در مورد برخی از انواع دارای تخلخل یکنواخت باشد. فرآیند تولید نان شامل سه مرحله ۱- مخلوط کردن آرد، آب و سایر مواد اولیه برای تشکیل شبکه گلوتنی و بهبود کیفیت آن، ۲- ایجاد حجم و حالت اسنفجی به کمک گاز کربنیک سنتز شده توسط مخمرها در مرحله تخمیر و به کمک دما در مراحل بعدی جهت بهبود کیفیت فیزیکی محصول و افزایش سطح تماس نان با آنزیم‌های گوارشی  ۳- دما دادن خمیر پس از طی مراحل معین برای تثبیت شبکه گلوتن خمیر که این عمل به وسیله انعقاد گلوتن و ژلاتینه شدن نشاسته صورت می‌گیرد، می‌باشد.

حال سوال این است که آیا اضافه کردن گلوتن ونشاسته به آرد های ضعیف، سستی آن را برطرف می‌سازد؟؟؟

در بین غلات، گندم به عنوان یک محصول استراتژیک در جهان مورد توجه می‌باشد به همین علت در طول بیش از هفت دهه، تحقیق‌های بسیاری با هدف تولید بیشتر و فرآوری بهتر این محصول انجام شده است. در این میان، تعیین خصوصیات مکانیکی و شیمیایی گندم، به دلیل تاثیر آن بر کیفیت محصول نهایی به ویژه نان از جایگاه خاصی برخوردار بوده است.

اندازه گیری میزان پروتئین از روش‌های غیر مستقیم برای تعیین کیفیت نانوایی گندم می‌باشد.پروتئین مهم گندم گلوتن است که در گذشته برای تعیین کیفیت گندم از میزان پروتئین کل استفاده می شد؛ اما از آن جهت که تمام پروتئین‌های گندم برای کیفیت نانوایی مناسب نیست و تنها پروتئین‌های گلوتنی، دارای این خاصیت می‌باشند،در همین راستا علاوه بر اندازه‌گیری کمی، اندازه‌گیری‌های کیفی آرد مطرح گردید. (ZELENY ۱۹۴۷)

ارزش نانوایی ارقام مختلف گندم به تعداد گلوتن موجود در دانه آن‌ها وابسته است و کیفیت آرد و پخت نان در یک رقم گندم صفتی پیچیده و تحت تاثیر عوامل متعدد محیطی و ژنتیکی است که تعادل بین ترکیبات مختلف مانند نشاسته، پروتئین، چربی‌ها، عدد زلنی، آب و تداخل بین این ترکیبات، تعیین‌کننده کیفیت یک رقم گندم است. لذا با توجه به شرایط کنونی کشور و خودکفایی گندم که در سال‌های خشکسالی با وجود مشقات و موانع بسیار همراه بوده است متاسفانه وجود برخی از نواقص در زنجیره تولید گندم  با کیفیت در برخی از منلاطق کشور منجر به کاهش برخی از فاکتورهای کیفی گندم از جمله گلوتن شده است. اگر چه آرد گندم، مخلوط پیچیده‌ای  از نشاسته، پروتئین، چربی، آنزیم‌ها و مقدار جزئی از اجزای دیگر است؛ اما اهمیت تکنولوژی آرد گندم را به پروتئین‌های گلوتنی آن نسبت می‌دهند که وجه تمایز آرد گندم با سایر آردها در وجود همین گلوتن می‌باشد. بنابراین در تهیه محصولات صنایع پخت به ویژه نان که قوت غالب اقشار مختلف جامعه را تشکیل می دهد، ترکیب متناسب گلوتن با نشاسته اهمیت ویژه‌ای دارد که به منظور بررسی ویژگی‌های رئولوژیکی خمیر و تعیین درصد مناسب اختلاط این ماده در تهیه محصولات صنایع پخت از روش‌های مختلفی از جمله آزمون فارینوگراف و آمیلوگراف استفاده می‌شود.(در نتیجه با توجه به روند تولید گندم و وجود اقلیم‌های متفاوت آب و هوایی در کشور که منتج به تولید گندم‌هایی با خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی متفاوت می‌شود، لزوم کنترل اولیه گندم و تعیین مقدار گلوتن و نشاسته امری ضروری است که در صورت لزوم و ضعف آر باید به صورت اصلاح‌کننده به آرد افزوده گردد.)

عده‌ای از محققان کیفیت گلوتن آردهای تجاری ایران را با استفاده از روش‌های آلوئوگراف و فارینوگراف مورد ارزیابی و مقایسه قرار دادند و در نهایت به این نتیجه رسیدند که کیفیت گلوتن موجود در آردهای مختلف در فاکتورهای آلوئوگراف از جمله مقادیر طولی در نقطه پارگی، اندیس کشش‌پذیری و اندیس با دکردگی و فاکتورهای فارینوگراف نظیر درصد جذب آب و زمان گسترش خمیر در  تیمارهای مختلف تفاوت معناداری دارد. (مرادی و همکاران ۱۳۸۹)

همچنین مطالعه خصوصیات رئولوژیکی خمیرهای آرد گندم، گلوتن و ترکیب نشاسته و گلوتن نشان می‌دهد که نسبت ترکیب گلوتن و نشاسته در محصولات صنایع پخت، به طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای بر روی فاکتورهایی از جمله جذب آب و دمای ژلاتیناسیون اثرگذار است و در نهایت این محققین بیان کردند که نسبت متناسب ترکیب گلوتن و نشاسته با تاثیر بر ویژگی‌های رئولوژیکی خمیر قادر است خصوصیات کمی و کیفی محصول نهایی را بهبود بخشد.

 

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