اثرامواج فراصوت بر گندم سن زده

تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/05

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عاکفه ضامنی کارشناس ارشد مهندسی  صنایع غذایی، مدیر کنترل کیفی شرکت آرد ممتاز الیگودرز

امروزه استفاده از امواج فراصوت به عنوان يک فناوري نوين در بهبود کيفيت محصولات نانوايي مورد توجه بسيار قرار گرفته است. گلوتن گندم عامل اصلی موثر بر خواص عملکردی خمیر از جمله کشش پذیری، مقاومت به کشش و استحکام خمیر است. قدرت گلوتن وابسته به مقدار پروتئین و ترکیب پروتئین است. عوامل مختلفی خصوصیات گلوتن را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهند. از جمله آنها می توان به حشره سن اشاره کرد که به دانه گندم نارس حمله می کند. پروتئاز موجود در بزاق حشره سن در آرد تهیه شده از گندم آسیب دیده توسط سن باقی مانده و به خمیر منتقل شده و گلوتن را هضم کرده و خمیر چسبنده و شل ایجاد کرده و کیفیت نان حاصله را کاهش می دهد. خمير نان يک ماده ویسکوالاستیک است كه رفتار رئولوژيكي متعادلي بين سيال ويسكوز و جامد الاستیک نشان ميدهد. هر  عاملي كه نسبت خاصيت ويسكوز به الاستیک را از حالت تعادل خارج نمايد باعث ميشود خمير مطلوبي به دست نيايد.   جنس سن غلات Eurintigrceps ،Eurygaster و  Aelia با حمله به بوته گندم، دانه هاي نارس را سوراخ نموده و آنزيم پروتئوليتيكي را به همراه بزاق خود وارد گندم مي نمايند كه باعث تخريب پروتئين و شبكه گلوتني گندم مي شود. آنزيم پروتئوليتيک بزاق سن قادر است پروتئينها را تخريب نموده و شبكه گلوتني را هيدروليز كرده و پپتيدهايي با وزن مولكولي پائين توليد نمايد. اين آنزيمها با تجزيه پيوندهاي عرضي S – S در شبكه گلوتني موجب تخريب اين شبكه ميشوند. چنانچه بيش از 5 درصد دانه هاي گندم، سن زده باشند، از آن خميري شل و بيقوام به دست مي آيد كه مقاومت كمتري موقع مخلوط شدن نشان ميدهد و به سختي قابل حمل و نقل است. نان حاصل از اين خمير حجم كمتر و خواص حسي، بافت، رنگ، رايحه و مزه ضعيف داشته و از نظر شكل غيرعادي است. راهكارهايي براي اصلاح و بهبود ويژگي هاي گندم سن زده پيشنهاد شده كه عموما مبني بر جداسازي گندم هاي آسيب ديده از سالم، ايجاد و احياي پيوندهاي دي سولفيدي جديد، بازيافت قدرت شبكه گلوتني و متعاقبا بهبود خواص نانوايي گندمهاي آسيب ديده توسط مواد بهبود دهنده راهكار ديگري است كه پيشنهاد شده است . براي از بين بردن آنزيمها ميتوان از روشهاي حرارتي استفاده كرد، اگرچه اين عمل به راحتي قابل اجرا است، اما هميشه به دليل ملاحظات كيفي قابل استفاده نيست. به همين دليل امروزه علاقه به جايگزيني حرارت با روشهاي ديگر براي غيرفعال كردن آنزيمها افزايش پيدا كرده است. يكي از راه حلهاي جايگزين استفاده از امواج فرا صوت بالای 20  کیلوهرتز است. با توجه به بررسي هاي انجام شده بر منابع مختلف مشخص مي شود كه آنزيم پروتئاز حاصل از بزاق سن به آرد منتقل ميشود سپس در مرحله تخمير فعاليت مي نمايد. بنابراين در قدم نخست، اولين راهكاري كه به نظر مي رسد از بين بردن يا غيرفعال ساختن پروتئاز موجود در آرد است. حشره سن حين تغذيه از دانه گندم، بزاق خود كه حاوي آنزيم پروتئاز است را به درون دانه وارد ميكند، اين آنزيم در آردسازي به آرد انتقال مييابد و تأثير منفي خود را هنگام مخلوط كردن و تخمير خمير نشان ميدهد. در نتيجه خميري چسبنده با ويژگي رئولوژي نامطلوب و ناني با حجم كم وخصوصيات رئولوژي ضعيف حاصل مي نمايد. با اعمال امواج فراصوت به دانه گندم قبل از اينكه آنزيم بتواند سبب تخريب شبكه گلوتني شود ميتواند باعث غيرفعالسازي اين آنزيم شده كه درنتيجه آن ساختار شبكه گلوتني حفظ و درنهايت منجر به بهبود خواص رئولوژيک و بافت خمير و همچنين خواص ارگانولپتيک نان ميگردد. با بررسي مجموع نتايج ميتوان عنوان نمود كه اعمال صوت با شدت 70 درصد در زمان 5 دقيقه علاوه براينكه بهترين تأثير را در حفظ خصوصيات رئولوژيک و بافت خمير و نان دارد، به شبكه گلوتني آسيب نميرساند. درحاليكه در شدت صوت بالاتر يا زمان طولانی تر عليرغم بهبود بعضي خواص نظير رنگ پوسته و مغز، تعادل رئولوژيک خمير بر هم خورده كه ميتواند به دليل شكسته شدن مولكولهاي گلوتنين با وزن مولكولي بالا به واحدهاي كوچكتر باشد.

 

 

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